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Infrastructure Investments to Return Philippine Economy to Growth
by Philippine Resources - December 01, 2020
By: Fernando Penarroyo
The Philippine economy grew on average by 6.3 percent annually over the last decade due to the country’s sound macroeconomic policies and structural economic reforms under President Rodrigo Duterte and his predecessor Benigno Aquino III. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the Philippine economy ranked among the best performers in Asia. A December 2019 survey showed that most Filipinos deemed that the Duterte administration was building infrastructure “better” than previous administrations through the “Build Build Build” (BBB) program. The Philippines is among the most vulnerable countries in the world susceptible to risks from climate change, and volcanic, and tectonic activities. Hazard-resilient infrastructure will help lessen the impact of natural disasters.
Regulators have markedly scaled-up public infrastructure investment, from an average of 3% of gross domestic product (GDP) during 2011–2016 to 5.1% in 2018. They plan to boost investment further to over 6% of GDP by 2022.
The Duterte administration is banking on its infrastructure development program to be the main driver of the country’s economic recovery as the Philippines is currently in economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Philippines has suffered from one of the region's worst COVID outbreaks and among the top 25 countries with infections and fatalities, and with the longest government-imposed lockdown. To the credit of the government, a number of infrastructure projects has seen completion despite the quarantine measures in the past months.
The two most anticipated infrastructure projects - the Metro Manila Skyway and the Metro Manila Subway, are expected to decongest the worsening transportation situation in the National Capital Region. To address capital's notoriously gridlocked roads particularly along the main artery traversing the city, the Metro Manila Skyway System (Skyway) is a 40-km long elevated expressway that cuts through greater Metro Manila. The Skyway, will connect the South Luzon Expressway with the North Luzon Expressway passing through the major cities of the National Capital Region including, Makati, Manila, Muntinlupa, Paranaque, Taguig, Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay City and San Juan. With the completion of the Skyway Stage 3, the elevated expressway will also help cut the travel time between Metro Manila and Clark International Airport in Pampanga.
On the other hand, the Metro Manila Subway (Subway) is the most expensive transportation project undertaken by the Duterte administration. The Subway, an underground rapid transit line currently under construction, spans a 36-kilometer line, which will run north–south between Quezon City, Pasig, Makati, Taguig, and Pasay consisting of 17 stations. It will become the country's second direct airport rail link after the North–South Commuter Railway, with a branch line to Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3. It is scheduled to be partially operational in 2022 and fully operational by 2025.
In addition, construction of six railway projects is also underway. Once all the railway projects are completed, the number of stations across all railway systems will increase to 169 from 59, the number of trains to 1,425 from 221, and daily ridership to 3.26 million from 1.02 million.
Following the COVID-19 pandemic however, the “BBB” program encountered setbacks with the realignment of part of its budget to finance the government’s response to the health and socio-economic crises. In the first semester of 2020, the government’s spending on infrastructure fell by 4.3% year on year to P297.9 billion. The 2020 budgets of the implementing agencies of the BBB program were also cut to fund dole-outs and medical response costing around PHP 121.9 billion (US$2.5 billion).
The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) was left with a much-lowered infrastructure program spending budget for 2020 at around PHP 458.9 billion (US$9.4 billion) down from PHP 580.9 billion (US$11.9 billion) while the Department of Transportation suffered a budget cut of around PHP 8.8 billion (US$181.2 million) from its original budget of around PHP147 billion (US$3.02 billion).
Despite budget cuts in public spending on infrastructure projects, the government has revised the list of flagship projects and reprioritized its infrastructure program. The National Economic and Development Authority Board approved a revised list of 104 projects worth P4.1 trillion under the “BBB” program. In response to the country’s post-pandemic needs, the government came out with a new list that included the national broadband program, an irrigation project, transportation infrastructure projects, health care systems, and the construction of the Virology Science and Technology Institute of the Philippines with an estimated total value of around PHP 4.1 trillion (US$84.4 billion)
Under the proposed P4.5-trillion national budget for 2021, the government increased the budget for infrastructure development by 41% to P1.107 trillion from the reduced P785.5-billion budget this year, with the biggest allocation of P157.5 billion going to the DPWH.
Reverting to PPPs
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) will play an increasingly important role in the “BBB” infrastructure plan to tap on private capital as the government’s ambitious infrastructure plans face fiscal challenges. This marks a shift back to the investment policy previously adopted by the Aquino administration and will offer more opportunities for private sector participation. However, the present administration has tighten provisions employed by the Aquino government which present regulators deem to be ‘detrimental’ to public interest, including automatic rate increases, commitments of non-interference, and non-compete clauses.
Since the start of 2020, PPP projects have reportedly raised Php1 trillion ($20.62 billion) worth of investments as approved by the Interagency Investment Coordination Committee-Cabinet Committee. These include the $15-billion second airport for Manila signed in September 2020. San Miguel Corp. entered into a $15-billion contract with the government to build Manila’s second aviation gateway in Bulacan province, 30 minutes north of the capital. The build-operate-transfer project, covered by a 50-year concession deal, calls for a new airport designed to accommodate up to 200 million passengers annually aim at decongesting the overcrowded Ninoy Aquino International Airport.
On the power side, ongoing projects include the LNG Import Facility in Batangas at the cost of $2 billion. The Department of Energy recently issued an order calling for a moratorium on the endorsements of the construction of future coal-fired power plants. Also, the DOE has finally confirmed that foreign-owned companies can engage in geothermal exploration, development, and utilization. This is provided under the Renewable Energy Law of 2008 which defined geothermal as mineral resources. The Philippine Constitution allows foreign ownership of large-scale petroleum, minerals, and mineral oils projects. These two developments are expected to benefit the incipient imported LNG and renewable energy industries.
According to the “Procuring Infrastructure PPP” component of Fitch Solutions Country Risk & Industry Research’s Project Risk Index (Fitch PRI), the Philippines has a relatively well-structured PPP framework compared to other major South-East Asian emerging markets,. Its well-developed PPP program is mainly driven by the Philippine PPP Center, an administrative body tasked with providing technical assistance to various stakeholders involved in the PPP transaction and advocating policy reforms to improve the PPP framework. There currently exists three pieces of legislature - Republic Act Nos. 9184, 6957 and 7718, which provides the legal framework in the implementation of PPP projects.
Challenges and Risks
While the PPP business environment for infrastructure has a supportive institutional framework for private sector participation, the World Economic Forum’s global competitiveness report places the Philippines among the lowest in ASEAN in key infrastructure services and substantially lower than the ASEAN average in overall infrastructure. Given the prospects of a high demand for infrastructure from economic and demographic growth, there is a need for a significant upgrade.
According to Fitch PRI, the Philippines rank lowly in both indicators of construction timeliness (Bureaucratic Environment and Construction Permit), pointing to a heightened risk of completion delays. In addition to project risk, there exists high operational risk, mainly attributable to crime and security risks, as the country suffers from high levels of crime and is vulnerable to terrorist attacks. In the 2018 Corruption Perception Index, the Philippines was ranked 99 out of 180 countries, indicating a high level of corruption which undermines the effectiveness of laws and regulations in place.
Electricity generation capacity per capita is among the lowest in ASEAN while power transmission and distribution loss is at the ASEAN average. The government must address the need to enhance capacity with the expected continuous high economic growth. Also, with the impending depletion of the Malampaya natural gas field, there is a need to replace this energy source. The Malampaya gas-to-power facility comprises 21% of the total generation mix in the country and fuels five power plants with a total generating capacity of 3,211 megawatts.
Internet speed in the Philippines is among the slowest and most expensive in the world, no thanks to under-investment, poor government policy and the country’s archipelagic nature. In a 2018 test measuring the average download speed of a 5GB file, the Philippines ranked 97th in the world (at 1hr 52min) compared to 8 min in Taiwan, 9 min in its ASEAN neighbor Singapore, and Thailand at 37 minutes. Slow internet speed puts the country at a great disadvantage. Industry consolidation in the last 30 years has resulted to the virtual duopoly of Globe Telecom and Smart Telecom. The Duterte government recently gave the third franchise to a new operator, Dito Telecom, which promised to use the latest 5G technology, install 10,000 cell sites and roll out services by March 2021.
Investors continues to face a high degree of risks as the infrastructure program is undermined by a number of major impediments, particularly the four Cs - inadequate cost recovery, corruption, insufficient competition, and low credibility of institutions. Despite having one of the most comprehensive PPP frameworks in the region, the government must institute reforms to tackle these impediments.
Improving Infrastructure Investments Management
Ensuring that the government properly manages its infrastructure spending will be a challenge. Enhancing public investment management would contribute to timely and cost-effective planning and execution of infrastructure projects. A recent IMF Public Investment Management Assessment ranks the Philippines similarly to its regional peers, but observes an efficiency gap of about 23% compared with best practices in translating public investment into infrastructure. As recommended in the report, project appraisals can be enhanced by requiring upfront identification of risk mitigation measures and publishing appraisal analyses to elicit comments from the public.
An adequate identification and management of risks will complement public sector efforts in infrastructure promotion. Regulators can also embark on an update of the legal framework to include encouraging new forms of PPPs and developing domestic capital markets that will entice more private-sector participation, as long as financial risks to the government are well managed.
Measures to promote competition and trade would reinforce the benefits of other reforms. Recent reforms have focused on reducing the costs of doing business through increased administrative and regulatory efficiency with the establishment of the Anti-Red Tape Authority, promoting one-stop shops, e-platforms, standardization of licensing procedures, and regulatory transparency. Implementation of the ease-of-doing-business law will complement efforts to cut red tape as well by increasing transparency and accountability of regulatory agencies.
Greater competition will help in managing costs and reducing risks of corruption. Although an institutional framework is in place for transparent and competitive public procurement process, reforms are still needed to ensure that the process is made more competitive. Competition is still not sufficiently effective in practice with many tenders resulting in bid rigging. Competition can also be promoted by imposing stricter sanctions on anti-competitive practices, such as larger financial penalties and longer exclusion from future tendering. Making procurement information more easily accessible and ensuring that bidders are technically and financially qualified will increase transparency. Authorities should also be insulated from short-term political pressures so as not to undermine regulatory credibility. Upgrades in public information technology infrastructure, such as e-invoicing and digital national identification cards, will also promote efficiency and transparency.
Despite recent progress, high barriers to foreign direct investment remain in the Philippines. Lowering obstacles to foreign investment, currently pegged at 40%, will stimulate private investment, ease domestic capacity constraints, and facilitate absorption of frontier technologies. Finally, tax reform can help sustain the infrastructure push while safeguarding fiscal sustainability. The government’s recent tax reforms have led to a significant increase in revenue collection but it is imperative to pass the remaining packages of reforms for further improvements in the tax system once the country is out of the pandemic crisis. These reforms will support sustainable investment in infrastructure and human capital.
The infrastructure industry remains an important engine of growth for the Philippine economy but despite recent progress, there still are relatively high barriers and procedural hurdles that hampers the development of its full potential. Strengthening the public procurement process with greater competition and transparency, and allowing greater foreign participation in domestic projects would help in managing costs and reducing risks. Private investment is projected to increase over time with the government’s infrastructure push and ongoing economic policy reform efforts, which will lead to higher economic growth and subsequent investments in education, health care, digital technologies, climate change and natural disasters mitigation.
Fernando “Ronnie” S. Penarroyo specializes in Energy and Resources Law, Project Finance and Business Development. He may be contacted at email@example.com for any matters or inquiries in relation to the Philippine resources industry. Atty. Penarroyo’s commentaries are also archived at his professional blogsite at www.penarroyo.com
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Philippine Resources - November 06, 2019
Adding value to mining by driving the UN sustainable development goals
In 2015 the UN adopted a new set of aspirations for the next 15 years; the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The UN defines 17 SDGs, which are broken down into 169 targets, for outlining an agenda for nations, NGOs and business leaders. These goals are intended to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity. It is good to see some mining companies are already driving SDGs. However, others are still considering this. Most of the mining companies start to map these 17 SDGs to mining content in order to cover social, economic and environmental sustainability. Other mining companies use corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports as an item to check on their compliance checklist. Generally most mining companies unfortunately wouldn’t gain much value added in running social, economic and environmental initiatives in support of the SDGs for the following reasons:The lack of a clearly articulated sustainability strategy; no idea where to start Complexity, and a lack of priority, focus, and deliverable milestones Limited ambition, and a limited budget A lack of leaders in the organization, who are not brave enough to go the extra mile The lack of talented or motivated people in the organization A lack of cross-business activity and communication The absence of business and senior leadership in sustainability strategies, formulation, and execution Poor change control and lag A lack of skills and expertise to realize the sustainability strategiesTwo initiatives that help to drive the UN SDGs in mining are now further discussed. Circular economy in mining Apple has installed Liam, a line of robots that can quickly disassemble iPhone 6. Apple claims that with two Liam lines up and running, they can take apart up to 2.4 million phones a year. These types of recycling mechanisms can be used in other industries such as manufacturing, automotive, building and construction, chemicals and plastics. However, you need to modify your plant infrastructure to enable these capabilities. Even though there are upfront costs involved with building these capabilities, it pays off in the end. This raises the question; what would happen if other giant companies similar to Apple were to prioritize recycling and stop buying minerals from mining companies? Apple is one business model which could be followed by mining companies to drive concepts of circular economy, and to use secondary materials by re-smelting them. This would help to protect our environment by preventing the stacking of unwanted waste in waste yards. Figure 1 shows the mining value chain of a mining company that is driven by linear economy and circular economy. Having a recycling plant in a mine site would help to manage day to day waste that is generated in mining operations. Here are some of the quick wins that help to make an impact as a result of driving the circular economy in mining; recycling old tires from mining trucks & dozers, recycling waste lubricants, using mine waste for backfilling, refurbishing and recycling mining equipment. In the future, mining companies will be able to leverage 3D printing and additive manufacturing methods to reduce excess waste in production during mining operations. Renewable energy in mining There is a big push from the mining industry towards renewable energy for many reasons. Energy usually accounts for 33% of a mine’s operating costs. Therefore, a rapid fall in the cost of solar and wind power would be highly lucrative if a mining business were to use renewables. Not only that, the stability of renewable energy, which would reduce exposure to volatile diesel prices, is another reason why renewables are becoming popular in the mining sector. Most importantly, powering renewable energy sources in mining would help to reduce CO2 emissions to mitigate against the effects on climate change, reduce emissions from blasting explosive and diesel-powered generators, and help to minimize the carbon footprint and carbon tax payments. Finally, renewable energy predominately helps to drive SDG7 (affordable and clean energy) and SDG13 (climate action) under the UN SDGs. In short, there is a huge demand for renewables in the mining sector due to such things as cost reduction, environmentally friendly considerations and reliable power sources. Energy companies will help and support mining companies to facilitate this huge demand by having lucrative business models, such as investing in co-investor, build-own-operate-transfer and off-take agreement models. Here is what mining CEOs have to say about renewable energy in mining. “We are working on increasing our use of renewables at all of our operations at competitive prices.” (Iván Arriagada, Antofagasta CEO); “The use of solar energy will reduce Essakane’s carbon emissions by 255,000 tonnes over 15 years, will save on energy costs and will be our legacy long after we are gone, as the community will be left with a low-cost power source.” (Stephen Letwin, CEO of IAMGOLD).My prediction is that in the next decade, the mining industry will focus on reaching zero greenhouse gas emissions and will be heavily involved in driving the UN defined sustainable development goals (SDGs).In conclusion, driving concepts of a circular economy and renewable energy would positively impact on the sustainable development goals (SDGs) defined by the UN. Concepts of circular economy and use of renewables can be applied to any organization thinking about how to manage its own waste, how to build a recycling unit, and how to use green-power sources. Driving these concepts would be a step towards a greener economy and a better environment for the next generation. About the author:Kash Sirinanda has a doctorate in mine planning and optimisation from the University of Melbourne, Australia. During his PhD studies and post-doctoral work at the University, Kash developed algorithms for generating designs that maximise the NPV of a mining operation. That work provides the basis for software that assists mine planners to design more profitable mines. Kash was also a visiting scholar at the Colorado School of Mines, USA.He has worked on various mining projects which include due diligence, operation, analytics, optimisation and digital in different commodities around the globe. He is a keynote speaker and provides mining leaders with strategic direction, and visionary leadership.Kash´s vision is to engage, partner, and collaborate with leaders and decision makers to transform a business into a best-in-class, advanced digital and sustainable-enabled competency company.Founder of www.mineconnector.com & www.elitefuturists.comThis article is bought to you by www.secondchanceevents.com Mining Towards 2030, Applying the United Nations SDG’s to MiningReference https://www.ft.com/content/b3b7fe4a-a5fc-11e8-a1b6-f368d365bf0ehttp://worldcongress.energyandmines.com/files/Feature-Article-x-4-v3-ia-opt.pdf
Philippine Resources - March 12, 2019
Defending our territorial rights through historical facts
By Marcelle P. VillegasOn 7 May 2009, China submitted the Nine-dashed Lines Map to the United Nations. Their map gobbles up large areas of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) of the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. China’s Nine-Dashed Lines Map shows that China is claiming 85.7% of the entire South China Sea. Their claim covers 3 million square kilometers out of the 3.5 million square kilometers surface area of the South China Sea.  This is the root cause of the South China Sea dispute, because China did not provide a legal basis for the dashes. The dashes also had no fixed coordinates. With that, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia protested against China’s claim. This story is more than about defending our territorial or maritime rights. It is also of geological significance and fighting for our own natural resources. In January 2013, the Philippines formally initiated arbitration proceedings against the PRC’s claim on the territories within the “nine-dash line” that include the Scarborough Shoal. Justice Antonio T. Carpio, Senior Associate Justice of Republic of the Philippines Supreme Court, defended the Philippines’ right of ownership of the little islands within our territory to the international Arbitral Tribunal. His strategy in explaining our claim was simple – pointing out our legal rights through legitimate historical records. In his presentation “The South China Sea West Philippine Sea Dispute”, he enumerates several important facts about our territory.To begin with, what is the significance of the South China Sea to the world? There are US$5.3 trillion of ship-borne goods that travel through the South China Sea annually. This is almost one-half of the world’s shipborne trade in tonnage. A great percentage of the petroleum imports of South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and China pass through the South China Sea. The annual global fish catch from South China Sea is worth US$21.8 billion. Additionally, 2 billion people live in the 10 countries bordering the South China Sea where hundreds of millions of people depend on fish there for their protein. More importantly, maritime area that are close to the coast of the countries bordering the South China Sea are rich in oil and gas resources. South China Sea is also rich in methane hydrate which is a potential source of energy.  Over 250 small islands, atolls, shoals, reefs, cays and sandbars are located at the South China Sea. These small land area have no inhabitants. The features are grouped into three archipelagos namely, Macclesfield Bank, Scarborough Shoal, Pratas Islands, Paracel Islands and Spratly Island. How does the Nine-dashed Line Map affect the Philippines? The Philippines loses about 80% of its EEZ facing the West Philippine Sea. This includes the entire Reed Bank and part of the Malampaya gas field. This loss covers 381,000 square kilometers of maritime space and 100% of the Philippines’ ECS which covers an estimate of over 150,000 square kilometers of maritime space. In 2012, China seized Scarborough Shoal (Panatag) from the Philippines. It is a small ring of reefs that is located about 230 km from the Philippines, but 650 km from the nearest major Chinese land mass (southern island of Hainan province). Scarborough Shoal is rich in marine life where fishermen from the Philippines, China and Vietnam have been fishing for several years. It is in the Philippines EEZ. Martin Luther King, Jr. once said, “Learn a little about your past, and you may end up with a pretty nice future”. Looking back in our history was indeed the winning strategy on how the west was won in this dispute. Here are some of the historical proofs and legal basis presented by Justice Antonio T. Caprio before the Tribunal.1. Official and unofficial maps of China from 1136 during the Song Dynasty until the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1912 show that the southernmost territory of China has always been Hainan Island, and not the areas of the Nine-Dashed Lines. On the other hand, there are various official and unofficial maps of the Philippines from 1636 until 1933 that consistently illustrate that Scarborough Shoal has always been part of the Philippines. Centuries ago, the name of Scarborough Shoal was “Panacot” according to the Murillo Velarde Map in 1734. This was published in Manila while the Philippines was still a colony of Spain. 2. The Franciscans arrived in the Philippines in 1578. In 1695, the Coronelli Map of Southeast Asia (entitled Isloe dell’ Indie) shows the Spratlys as part of the Philippines. The map was illustrated by the Franciscan monk, Venetian Vincenzo Coronelli. The map was published in Venice in 1695. Coronellie is well-known for his accurate atlases and globes, and as the Father General of the Franciscan Order.3. In 1899, the map “Islas Filipinas, Mapa General Observatorio de Manila” was published in Washington, D.C. by the U.S. Coast of Geodetic Survey. This old map resembles the modern Philippine map that we use today.4. In 1898, when the Philippine Revolution was about to end in victory to end 300 years of Spanish rule, Spain secretly sold the Philippines to the United State of America under what is known as the 1898 Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States. This agreement did not include the little islands surrounding the main islands of the country, thus another treaty was made called the 1900 Treaty of Washington. 5. The Treaty of Washington entails that Spain had given to the United States “all title and claim of title, which (Spain) may have had at the time of the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace of Paris, to any and all islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago, lying outside the lines” of the Treaty of Paris. Therefore this agreement clarifies that Spain ceded Scarborough Shoal to the United States under the 1900 Treaty of Washington (or the Treaty between Spain and the United States for Cession of Outlying Islands of the Philippines, signed November 7, 1900).6. Additionally, Secretary Cordell Hull of the U.S. State Department mentioned in his Memorandum of July 27, 1938 to Harry Woodring, Secretary of War: “In the absence of evidence of a superior claim to Scarborough Shoal by any other government, the Department of State would interpose no objection to the proposal of the Commonwealth Government to study the possibilities of the shoal as an aid to air and ocean navigation.”Finally, on 4 July 1946, the Treaty of Manila has been signed granting the Philippines full independence from the United States of America.7. Scarborough Shoal was also used by the United States and the Philippine military as an impact range for their warships and warplanes from 1960s – 1980s. The International Maritime Organization of the United Nations was notified of such activities. During those years, there were no protests from any country about these activities.In conclusion, “The Philippines today is engaged in a historic battle to defend over 531,000 square kilometers of its maritime space (EEZ and ECS) in the West Philippine Sea, an area larger than the total land area of the Philippines of 300,000 square kilometers. This huge maritime space is part of Philippine national territory since the Constitution defines the ‘national territory’ to include ’the seabed, the subsoil, and other submarine areas’ over which the Philippines has ‘sovereignty or jurisdiction’. Under UNCLOS, the Philippines has ‘jurisdiction’ over this huge maritime space. Can the Philippines prevent China from gobbling up this huge maritime space? All citizens of the Philippines - both government personnel and private individuals – have a solemn duty to prevent the loss of this huge maritime space. It is a duty we owe to ourselves, and to future generations of Filipinos. The Historic Battle for the West Philippine Sea.”  (From the presentation of Justice Antonio T. Carpio)On 12 July 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) tribunal in Netherlands agreed unanimously with the Philippines. They concluded that there is no evidence and "no legal basis for China to claim historic rights" over the area within the nine-dash line. The tribunal also judged that the PRC had caused "severe harm to the coral reef environment"  and had violated the Philippines’ sovereign rights in its EEZ by interfering with Philippine fishing and petroleum exploration (such as restricting the Filipino fishermen at Scarborough Shoal). PRC rejected this ruling. Their president Xi Jinping said that, "China's territorial sovereignty and marine rights in the South China Sea will not be affected by the so-called Philippines South China Sea ruling in any way", nevertheless the PRC would still be "committed to resolving disputes" with its neighbours. China afterwards sent more warships in the Scarborough Shoal. Disclaimer: Regarding “The South China Sea West Philippine Sea Dispute” by Justice Antonio T. Caprio – The views expressed in the presentation are the personal opinion of the author and do not necessarily represent the position of the Philippine Government.References: “South China Sea Arbitral Award” - https://www.slideshare.net/SamGalope/south-china-sea-arbitral-award South China Sea - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_China_SeaScarborough Shoal - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarborough_Shoal Justice Antonio T. Carpio. “The South China Sea West Philippine Sea Dispute” - https://www.slideshare.net/SamGalope/lecture-the-south-china-sea-west-philippine-dispute-justice-antonio-t-carpio-philippine-social-science-center “5 facts on Scarborough Shoal” (8 Feb. 2017) by Agence France-Presse and ABS-CBN News - https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/02/07/17/5-facts-on-scarborough-shoal https://www.slideshare.net/7philippines/the-south-china-sea-west-philippine-sea-dispute Perez, Jane (12 July 2016). "Beijing's South China Sea Claims Rejected by Hague Tribunal". The New York Times. Tom Phillips, Oliver Holmes, Owen Bowcott (12 July 2016). "Beijing rejects tribunal's ruling in South China Sea case". The Guardian. "South China Sea: Tribunal backs case against China brought by Philippines". BBC. 12 July 2016.
Philippine Resources - March 18, 2019
GEOCON highlights the role of Filipino Geologists
By Marcelle P. Villegas Highlighting the achievements and challenges in the field of geology, The Geological Society of the Philippines (GSP) presented the 2018 Annual Geological Convention (GeoCon) last December 11-12, 2018 at The Manila Hotel. GSP is a duly accredited integrated professional organization for geologists. The theme for this event is “Building the Country, Securing the Future, The Role of Filipino Geologists”. The exhibit and convention was held at the hotel’s Fiesta Pavilion which had over 900 attendees from different parts of the country.The Welcome Remarks was given by Dr. Renato U. Solidum, Jr. who is the Undersecretary for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change of the Philippines, Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Mr Alberto P. Morillo, 2018 President of the Geological Society of the Philippines, introduced the keynote speaker, Honorable Juan Edgardo “Sonny” M. Angara, Senator and Chairman of the Senate Committee on Local Government/ Ways and Means.Senator Angara’s speech highlighted many important and critical topics surrounding the mining industry and the country’s Science and Technology (S&T) status in general. He started by thanking the Filipino scientists and S&T professionals for the important role they play in powering our economy forward. Then he wished them to have a long life and an appeal for them to stay in the country. "Sadly, people like them are fast becoming a rare breed here in the Philippines," he states."We continue to lose our best and brightest… We may be exhibiting among the world's fastest economic growth rates but we remain among the world's top labor-exporters, with close to 10 million of our people working in greener pastures abroad."He said that these migrant workers may bring important dollar remittance to the Philippines which keeps our macroeconomic position stable, but their talents and skills are utilized by another country rather than here where they are much needed."A 2017 ADB report found that of all the 2.79 million tertiary-educated ASEAN nationals who migrated to OECD countries between 2010 and 2011, around 1.55 million or 55.3% were Filipinos. Among ASEAN countries, we sent abroad the biggest number of educated professionals comprising a significant brain drain. In fact, we sent to OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries a little more than three times as many as the second largest labor-exporting ASEAN country--Vietnam with 539,000."Additionally, he noted, "By some measure, I am sure that such brain drain is also felt in the industries and research areas where the members of the Geological Society of the Philippines are involved."Sen. Angara discussed the following topics:1) Failure to create high-paying, S&T-driven jobs - He stressed the general inability of our economy to create high-paying jobs in the field of science and technology. For this reason, most professionals in the scientific field (like geologists, engineers, etc.) end up working in New Zealand, Australia, Canada or UK for more lucrative jobs.2) "But even government-research positions are unattractive." - The Senator stated that, "Our top scientists, engineers and researchers are forced to find opportunities abroad where their talents are well-compensated. A National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) July 2014 press release said that since the Scientific Career System was institutionalized in 1983, only 147 career scientists have entered the system -- or little less than 5 new scientists each year for 31 years. Worse, out of the 147, only 47 were actually active in government."Sen. Angara mentioned that they worked to respond to the issue by co-authoring amendments to the Magna Carta for Scientists, Engineers and Researchers (still pending in the House of Representatives) to counter this. He says that this entails removal of limits on honoraria or additional salary that scientists can receive from grants-in-aid projects, expanding the coverage to include non-DOST S&T personnel (such as the R&D employees of the DA), and granting five-year extensions to those up for mandatory retirement. 3) “This needs to be rectified soon because the lack of attractive S&T jobs in the country dissuades many of our youth from pursuing S&T courses.”4) “Such situation is unfortunate especially when S&T can play such a big role in solving many of the challenges we face today. Geologists and Geoscientists in particular could help the nation in any number of ways.”Additionally, he emphasised the significant roles of geologists in addressing more issues in the country such as, disaster risk reduction (in preparation for “The Big One” earthquake), infrastructure build-up, responsible mining, and energy security. Sen. Angara also emphasised the importance of making education available to all to provide opportunities to more children so they will be encouraged to pursue a career in Science and Technology. Several technical papers and studies were presented for the two-day convention. “Landslides in Itogon, Benguet: The Triggers and Causes” was discussed by M. Madrigal et al. Another interesting topic presented was the “Typhoon Ompong-Induced Landslides and Debris Flows in the Mine Claims and Host Barangays of Itogon-Suyoc Resources Inc. in Itogon and Mankayan, Benguet Province: Emergency Preparedness Initiatives” by G. Rostata et al.The environmental issue in Boracay was discussed by R. Agot et al with their study titled “Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Investigation of Buried Pipes along White Beach and Bulabog Beach, Boracay Island, Municipality of Malay, Aklan Province.” Their presentation revealed photos which are striking evidence on how certain restaurants and resorts in Boracay have violated environmental rules and guidelines in managing their wastewater. For Session 5 of day 1 of GeoCon 2018, the special guest speaker was Ms Marites Danguilan Vitug, RAPPLER’s Editor-at-Large and author of the book “Rock Solid: How the Philippines won Its Maritime Case against China”. Atty. Fernando Penarroyo, moderator of Session 5 described the book, “‘Rock Solid’ narrates the complicated maritime dispute by providing previously unreported details on the developments before and after the July 2016 arbitral decision.” The author discussed her book during the event. Ms Vitug is a former editor of Newsbreak magazine. She won numerous awards such as the Philippine National Book Award in Journalism for her books “Power from the Forest: the Politics of Logging” and “Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in Mindanao” with Glenda M. Gloria. She also received the Courage in Journalism Award by the International Women’s Media Foundation (U.S.A.) for her work that exposes plunder of Palawan forests. Her book with Criselda Yabes titled “Jalan Jalan:A Journey through EAGA” was chosen by Asiaweek as one of the best books on Asia in 1999. Election for the 2019 GSP Officers and Trustees also took place during the GeoCon 2018. The induction of newly elected officers, trustees and committed chairs was held later in January 31, 2019 at PHIVOLCS Auditorium. This year’s GSP Officers and Trustees are the following: President: Dr. Carla B. Dimalanta (President), Dr. Teresito C. Bacolcol (Vice-President), Dr. Jillian Aira S. Gabo-Ratio (Secretary), Dr. Victor B. Maglambayan (Treasurer), Dr. Karlo L. Queaño (Assistant Secretary), and Trustees Mr. Ciceron C. Angeles, Jr., Dr. Rene Juna R. Claveria, Dr. Betchaida D. Payot and Atty. Marissa P. Cerezo.This year will be an exciting time for GSP as they prepare for the 75th year anniversary in 2020. GSP will also be hosting the GEOSEA conference on the same year. Acknowledgement:Thank you to Atty. Ronnie Penarroyo, Ms Marites Danguilan Vitug, Dr. Renato U. Solidum, Jr., and Ms Dianne Kay Orquina Namit.
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Philippine Resources - April 12, 2021
Masbate Companies Win PMIEA Awards
In the recently concluded 2020 Presidential Mineral Industry Environmental Awards (PMIEA), the Masbate Gold Project's two companies, Filminera Resources Corp. and Phil. Gold Processing & Refining Corp., won four awards in the Best Mining Forest and Safest Mine categories. PMIEA recognizes mining companies that demonstrate best practices in safety and health care, environmental conservation, and community sustainability. Filminera was awarded the Platinum Achievement Award in Surface Mining Operation Category by the PMIEA Selection Committee, as well as the Titanium Achievement Award in Mineral Exploration Category and the Safest Mineral Exploration – A Category. PHL Gold, on the other hand, won the PMIEA Titanium Achievement Award in the Mineral Processing Category from the PMIEA Selection Committee. Both organizations have active initiatives aimed at environmental protection, ecological sustainability, and advanced land use planning. The reforested and rehabilitated areas are now home to a wide variety of flora and fauna habitats as a result of these upland and coastal reforestation activities. Apart from promoting sustainability through conservation projects, the companies have also aided social growth in the local areas through a variety of livelihood initiatives. Fast-growing and natural forest tree species were used to revegetate the Syndicate Waste Dump, which was undergoing restoration.
Philippine Resources - April 12, 2021
Mining Industry Anticipates Receiving a ‘Passing Score' on the EITI's Transparency Validation.
The Philippines' Chamber of Mines (COMP) expressed hope in completing the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) validation process, which began on April 1, 2021. The validation is an evaluation of adopting countries' willingness to follow EITI requirements, and it is the second to be completed since 2017. The countries will be graded on three aspects of the validation process: 1) stakeholder engagement—involvement of all government, business, and civil society stakeholders 2) transparency—requirements for accountability, such as a beneficial ownership registry; and 3) results and impact—addressing national interests in natural resource governance. The EITI Board is scheduled to report the final outcome of the validation in the fourth quarter of 2021. The Philippines was found to have made "satisfactory progress" in the first validation in 2017, making it the first EITI adopting country to reach such status, according to COMP. The industry remains committed to the EITI benchmark, with 95 per cent of active mines filing their accounts, according to COMP Executive Director Ronald Recidoro. “The Chamber of Mines of the Philippines looks forward to the validation. We hope to still be at the forefront of this transparency initiative just as we were in 2017 under the old standard,” he said. COMP member-companies, at the very least, had been doing disclosure monitoring on their own, according to Recidoro, even before it became mandatory. “We have done a lot to move transparency reporting in the Philippines, including reporting on gender, environmental protection, etc., which is only now being made mandatory under the new standard,” he said. The validation, according to Bantay Kita, a civil society delegate to the Philippine EITI Multi-Stakeholder Community (PH-EITI MSG), is an opportunity to address problems in adopting the EITI and how it can be more applicable at both the national and sub-national levels. “Over the past months, the PH-EITI MSG has been working to gather all evidence to show progress in the Philippines. All stakeholders, not only civil society, have contributed to communicating EITI data and initiated outreach activities from local communities to policy-makers,” Vincent Lazatin, national coordinator of Bantay Kita, said in a news statement. “Stakeholders involved in the validation process would be honest and able to articulate what really is happening on the ground with the transparency initiative of extractive industries in our country. Beyond aiming to be on top, the one of greater value is knowing the real score, the PH-EITI’s actual situation, and how we can perform better,” said Aniceta Baltar, a civil society representative to the PH-EITI MSG. “The validation looks at how it continues to execute its mandate, and at what level it does. It also gauges what positive impacts the initiative were able to bring across to its constituents and stakeholders,” she added. When pressed for more details, Recidoro stated that COMP, as a founding member of the PH-EITI, is committed to continuing to participate in the validation process. According to him, the 2019 EITI validation standard includes additional provisions such as documentation on gender and environmental spending, as well as the contentious question of beneficial possession (BO). “The PH-EITI has been reporting on gender and environmental expenditure since 2012, so we are ahead of the curve in that regard. We piloted beneficial ownership reporting last year,” Recidoro said. However, he said, “BO reporting will still need some work.” “We need SEC [Securities and Exchange Commission] to take the lead on this so that it doesn’t become redundant,” he said. “There are also concerns about data privacy,” Recidoro added. He clarified that the EITI requires businesses to report ownership information, but that this is already being done with the SEC. When it comes to BO news, Recidoro believes the SEC needs to establish a consistent policy or set of guidelines. “Beneficial ownership disclosure is already part of the annual general information sheet [GIS], but the issue now is publication. SEC does not make that beneficial ownership disclosure public because of data privacy concerns,” he explained. The GIS is an annual filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in which businesses report on their specific corporate details and shareholders, among other things. Every year, businesses must send a different GIS form containing their organizational results, according to Recidoro. “Since last year, that GIS now has a beneficial ownership report portion. The GIS is available for download with the SEC, but the BO portion is redacted. Because of data privacy concerns,” he said.
Philippine Resources - April 12, 2021
Miners, government outlook bleak on Philippines' role in EV metals supply chain
Despite being the world's second-largest nickel producer, the Philippines' capacity to engage in the development of a global battery metals supply chain is severely restricted due to a shortage of facilities and stringent policies, as the country's mines bureau and mining industry both agree. "While the Philippines is a top nickel ore producer, we only have two existing nickel/cobalt processing plants that produce nickel and cobalt sulfide concentrates — intermediate products that are further processed in Japan to make electric vehicle batteries," Rocky Dimaculangan, vice president for communications at the Philippines' Chamber of Mines, or COMP, said. Mines and Geosciences Bureau Director Wilfredo Moncano reiterated the view of COMP, saying the Philippines "can participate in the supply of battery metals but it will be limited to the capacity of two mineral processing plants in the country put up by Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd." "Although the country is a top supplier of nickel as export, most of these or about 70% are exported as raw, directly shipped ore and has not undergone mineral processing," Moncano said. According to Moncano, the bureau has sent a request to Congress that would require current and new players to construct mineral processing plants that would manufacture finished and semi-finished materials. Some gold and copper mines in the United States have already built processing plants, and Moncano said the bureau hopes to see nickel and iron ore mines follow suit. "This initiative needs legislation by Congress because MGB cannot obligate these companies to do it without a law. A resulting consequence to this one is the gradual and partial ban of raw nickel and iron ore exports as well as Congressional support for the needed infrastructure like additional electric power plants, and the reduction of power cost because it requires billion dollars to put up a medium size mineral processing plant," Moncano said, noting that electricity costs are very significant in mineral processing. Domestic power prices are among the highest in the ASEAN region, on par with Singapore, according to the Department of Energy's Power Development Plan 2016-2040, owing to the absence of government subsidies, which are present in Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Miners in the Philippines had planned to benefit from Indonesia's ban on nickel exports, which will take effect in 2020. However, current environmental constraints will preclude the Philippines from fulfilling China's nickel production requirements in the absence of Indonesia, according to Market Intelligence's Metals and Mining Research unit, driving Chinese primary capacity down from a projected 715,000 tonnes in 2020 to 490,000 tonnes in 2025. "Larger policy issues ... remain unresolved, particularly the ban on open-pit mining and the moratorium on new mining projects until a new mining tax scheme has been put in place," Dimaculangan said. A prohibition on open-pit mining remains in effect in the Philippines, as does a restriction on new mining licenses before a new tax system is enacted. "To encourage the building of extremely expensive mineral processing facilities and manufacturing plants for EV batteries as well as for clean energy and renewable power projects, the industry needs full government support in terms of stable mining and investment policies that do not change mid-stream," Dimaculangan said. If the obstacles are overcome, the mining industry may be a crucial sector in the country's post-pandemic recovery, according to the COMP and the MGB. "It stands to reason that if policy problems are not immediately resolved, the Philippines will remain an unattractive mining destination and will most definitely fall short of its tremendous potential to participate in this worldwide trend towards mineral-intensive renewable power generation and battery storage technologies," Dimaculangan said. "Otherwise, and this would be most unfortunate, the Philippines will, so to speak, miss the boat again." For the time being, COMP sees the Philippine government's decision to authorize at least 26 new mining ventures that had been shut down by former Environment Secretary Regina Lopez to restart operations as a positive move for the industry. Dimaculangan also expressed hope after the government decided to renegotiate the terms of its financial and technical assistance deal with OceanaGold Corp., the owner of the Didipio gold-copper mine in Quirino province. "Once they are onstream, these projects will undoubtedly help increase the country's exports and the industry's contribution to our GDP," Dimaculangan said.